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    Dogs

    Doxycycline for Prophylaxis & Management of Osteoarthritis in Canines

    Preventative administration of doxycycline has shown to markedly reduce the severity of canine osteoarthritis (OA) in weight-bearing regions of the medial femoral condyle, and therapeutic administration of oral doxycycline has shown to reduce the severity of articular cartilage breakdown in various animal OA models. The disease-modifying effect is attributed to the reduction in levels of [...]

    Tramadol: An Appropriate Analgesic?

    Uses/Indications: Tramadol is a synthetic codeine analogue and a weak μ opioid receptor agonist. Tramadol also inhibits neuronal reuptake of norepinephrine and serotonin and may facilitate serotonin release. Therefore, it is recommended for acute and chronic pain and may be used alone to treat mild pain or adjunctively in a multimodal plan to treat moderate [...]

    Amantadine for Chronic Pain

    Uses/Indications: Amantadine may have efficacy and clinical usefulness against some veterinary viral diseases, but presently the greatest interest for its use in small animals is as an NMDA antagonist in the adjunctive treatment of chronic pain, particularly those tolerant to opioids. Amantadine antagonizes the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor, and chronic pain can be maintained or exacerbated [...]

    Tramadol: An Appropriate Analgesic?

    Uses/Indications: Tramadol is a synthetic codeine analogue and a weak μ opioid receptor agonist. Tramadol also inhibits neuronal reuptake of norepinephrine and serotonin and may facilitate serotonin release. Therefore, it is recommended for acute and chronic pain and may be used alone to treat mild pain or adjunctively in a multimodal plan to treat moderate [...]

    Piroxicam as Anti-Angiogenic Cancer Therapy

    Uses/Indications: Piroxicam's primary use is in dogs as adjunctive therapy for bladder transitional cell carcinoma. It may also be of benefit in squamous cell carcinoma, mammary adenocarcinoma, and transmissible venereal tumor (TVT). It also offers additional benefit as an NSAID reducing pain and inflammation. Anti-angiogenic therapy which is designed to cut off blood supply to [...]

    Tramadol: An Appropriate Analgesic?

    Uses/Indications: Tramadol is a synthetic codeine analogue and a weak μ opioid receptor agonist. Tramadol also inhibits neuronal reuptake of norepinephrine and serotonin and may facilitate serotonin release. Therefore, it is recommended for acute and chronic pain and may be used alone to treat mild pain or adjunctively in a multimodal plan to treat moderate [...]

    Piroxicam as Anti-Angiogenic Cancer Therapy

    Uses/Indications: Piroxicam’s primary use is in dogs as adjunctive therapy for bladder transitional cell carcinoma. It may also be of benefit in squamous cell carcinoma, mammary adenocarcinoma, and transmissible venereal tumor (TVT). It also offers additional benefit as an NSAID reducing pain and inflammation. Anti-angiogenic therapy which is designed to cut off blood supply to [...]

    Mirtazapine for Appetite Stimulation in Dogs and Cats

    Uses/Indications:  Treatment of chemotherapy induced nausea and vomiting (CINV), anorexia, associated with renal failure (azotemia), congestive heart failure, gastrointestinal disorders, liver disease, or neoplasia. Studies/Case Reports: For years, veterinarians have used B-vitamins and steroids for appetite stimulation in canines and benzodiazepines in felines. Pharmacy faculty at The Mississippi State College of Veterinary Medicine used mirtazapine [...]

    Phenylpropanolamine for Urinary Incontinance in Dogs

    Phenylpropanolamine (PPA), an α1-adrenergic receptor agonist, is often used in canines to help with urinary incontinence (urine leakage) by tightening the bladder sphincter muscle, most commonly occurring in middle-aged spayed female dogs. A study performed by Claeys, S. et al. performed a retrospective study to determine the efficacy of a single dose of PPA in [...]