Azathioprine for Rheumatoid Arthritis

Azathioprine is a purine antagonist drug that competes with the production of nucleic acids, particularly purines. Azathioprine is better known as a chemotherapeutic agent, but has also shown benefit in the treatment of autoimmune disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis. Azathioprine is commonly used in cases where NSAIDs or aspirin has not adequately controlled the patient’s [...]

Tylosin for Inflammatory Bowel Disease

Gastrointestinal (GI) disorders are common problems encountered in veterinary medicine. When all gastrointestinal illnesses are eliminated, chronic GI disorders need to be considered including inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). IBD is characterized by increase in number of inflammatory cells found in lining of stomach or intestinal tract. Any animal with unexplained vomiting or diarrhea, especially chronic [...]

Trilostane for Treatment of Pituitary-Dependent Hyperadrenocorticism (PDH)

PDH is caused by a benign tumor on the pituitary gland, causing overstimulation of the adrenal gland. This overstimulation leads to excessive cortisol or Cushing’s disease. Roughly 85% of dogs with Cushing’s syndrome developed this due to PDH. Often seen in veterinary practices as Vetoryl, trilostane is a synthetic enzyme inhibiting drugs used to lower [...]

USP 800 and How It Relates to Your Veterinary Practice

What is USP 800?  USP 800 has many healthcare professionals on edge as to how it relates to their field and practice scope. This federal standard was implemented with the intention of protecting the environment as well as any and all health care personnel that are exposed to hazardous drugs in the workspace. With the [...]

Cyclosporine- Uses and Forms for Dry Eye and Pannus

Cyclosporine: This medication is an immune modulating agent that can be used to increase tear production primarily by minimizing inflammation in the eye.  It is mainly only administered in dogs to treat dry eye and will need to be given indefinitely in dogs that are responsive to treatment. Its benefit has been shown and well [...]

Enrofloxacin- Uses and Forms for Ear Infections

Enrofloxacin: This is in the drug class fluoroquinolones and is a broad-spectrum bactericidal antibiotic.  It can be administered to both cats and dogs to treat ear infections. Enrofloxacin is effective against both gram positive and gram negative bacteria, particularly E.coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Vibri, Staphylococci and Brucella. Enrofloxacin is a beneficial choice for difficult to treat [...]

Piroxicam – Uses and Forms for Arthritis

PIROXICAM: This is in the drug class of Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDís) used to treat arthritis. Piroxicam can be given to both cats and dogs to relieve pain, inflammation and to a lesser degree high temperature. NSAIDís action is to block cyclooxygenase enzymes 1 and 2, which lower prostaglandin levels that are higher in times [...]

Doxycycline for Prophylaxis & Management of Osteoarthritis in Canines

Preventative administration of doxycycline has shown to markedly reduce the severity of canine osteoarthritis (OA) in weight-bearing regions of the medial femoral condyle, and therapeutic administration of oral doxycycline has shown to reduce the severity of articular cartilage breakdown in various animal OA models. The disease-modifying effect is attributed to the reduction in levels of [...]

Tramadol: An Appropriate Analgesic?

Uses/Indications: Tramadol is a synthetic codeine analogue and a weak μ opioid receptor agonist. Tramadol also inhibits neuronal reuptake of norepinephrine and serotonin and may facilitate serotonin release. Therefore, it is recommended for acute and chronic pain and may be used alone to treat mild pain or adjunctively in a multimodal plan to treat moderate [...]

Amantadine for Chronic Pain

Uses/Indications: Amantadine may have efficacy and clinical usefulness against some veterinary viral diseases, but presently the greatest interest for its use in small animals is as an NMDA antagonist in the adjunctive treatment of chronic pain, particularly those tolerant to opioids. Amantadine antagonizes the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor, and chronic pain can be maintained or exacerbated [...]