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    Veterinary Amitriptyline

    Amitriptyline is one of the most widely used tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) in companion animal behavioral medicine, exerting antihistaminic, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antidepressant effects. It increases synaptic activity of serotonin and norepinephrine, has significant central and peripheral anticholinergic activity, and stimulates β-adrenergic receptors in smooth muscle (e.g. the bladder), causing a decrease in smooth muscle excitability [...]

    Xylitol-Free Gabapentin for Pain Management

    Although only approved for human use, Gabapentin is widely used in veterinary medicine for both neuroleptic and analgesic indications, and has become a valuable adjunct in veterinary therapies. Gabapentin was available as a scored 100mg tablet allowing for some small animal dosing, however this dosage form has been discontinued leaving only 100mg capsules and Neurontin® [...]

    KCS in Canines

    Ocular administration of cyclopsorin (CsA) is frequently used as treatment for keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS) in canines. Cyclosporin is an immunosuppressive drug that reverses immune-mediated destruction of the lacrimal glands. A study performed by Izci et al. determined that topical administration of a 2% solution of CsA was effective for the treatment of dogs with KCS. [...]

    Mitotane Veterinary Use

    Mitotane is primarily used for the treatment of pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism (PDH) and in the palliative care of adrenal carcinoma, primarily in canines. It works by causing severe, progressive necrosis of the zona fasciculata and zona reticularis within days of starting therapy.1 Typically, hyperadrenocorticism is most commonly seen in middle-age to older dogs (7-12 years old) [...]

    Veterinary use of Enrofloxacin

    Enrofloxacin is a broad-spectrum, concentration-dependent*, bactericidal antibiotic used in a wide variety of species. A fluroquinolone, it is believed to act by inhibiting bacteria DNA-gyrase preventing DNA supercoiling and synthesis. Enrofloxacin has demonstrated a significant post-antibiotic effect (PAE)** for both gram – and + bacteria including Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella spp., E coli, Enterobacter, Campylobacter, Shigella, [...]

    Calcitriol for Chronic Renal Failure

    Uses/Indications: Controlling phosphate levels and preventing or reversing secondary hyperparathyroidism in dogs and cats suffering with chronic renal failure (CRF). Studies: A salutary effect of calcitriol treatment of CRF was shown in a placebo-controlled study of 37 dogs. The dose of calcitriol was adjusted according to serial ionized calcium and PTH determinations, and ranged from [...]

    Sildenafil (Viagra®) for Canine Pulmonary Hypertension

    Uses/Indications:  Treatment of Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension in canines (PAH) (pulmonary arterial systolic pressure > 30mm Hg, pulmonary arterial diastolic pressure > 15mm Hg, or mean pulmonary arterial pressure > 20mm Hg), is often associated with heartworm infection, respiratory conditions and acidosis. This is a life-threatening condition if untreated, ultimately causing right sided heart failure and [...]

    DES for Urinary Incontinence

    Uses/Indications:  Mostly used in estrogen responsive incontinence in spayed female dogs and in the medical treatment of benign prostatic hypertrophy in male dogs. Controversially, it has been used in the prevention of pregnancy after mismating in female dogs and cats. Studies:  In a retrospective study, 40 ovariectomized dogs were divided into two separate groups and [...]

    Potassium Bromide for Seizure Control in Canines

    Uses/Indications:  Used as both primary and adjunctive therapy to control seizures in dogs who are not adequately controlled on phenobarbital alone (when steady state trough phenobarbital concentrations are > 30mcg/ml for one month). Historically, it is only used alone when patients are suffering from phenobarbital hepatotoxicity, and occasionally may be considered as a drug of [...]