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    Vet Corner

    Tramadol: An Appropriate Analgesic?

    Uses/Indications: Tramadol is a synthetic codeine analogue and a weak μ opioid receptor agonist. Tramadol also inhibits neuronal reuptake of norepinephrine and serotonin and may facilitate serotonin release. Therefore, it is recommended for acute and chronic pain and may be used alone to treat mild pain or adjunctively in a multimodal plan to treat moderate [...]

    Piroxicam as Anti-Angiogenic Cancer Therapy

    Uses/Indications: Piroxicam’s primary use is in dogs as adjunctive therapy for bladder transitional cell carcinoma. It may also be of benefit in squamous cell carcinoma, mammary adenocarcinoma, and transmissible venereal tumor (TVT). It also offers additional benefit as an NSAID reducing pain and inflammation. Anti-angiogenic therapy which is designed to cut off blood supply to [...]

    Mirtazapine for Appetite Stimulation in Dogs and Cats

    Uses/Indications:  Treatment of chemotherapy induced nausea and vomiting (CINV), anorexia, associated with renal failure (azotemia), congestive heart failure, gastrointestinal disorders, liver disease, or neoplasia. Studies/Case Reports: For years, veterinarians have used B-vitamins and steroids for appetite stimulation in canines and benzodiazepines in felines. Pharmacy faculty at The Mississippi State College of Veterinary Medicine used mirtazapine [...]

    Phenylpropanolamine for Urinary Incontinance in Dogs

    Phenylpropanolamine (PPA), an α1-adrenergic receptor agonist, is often used in canines to help with urinary incontinence (urine leakage) by tightening the bladder sphincter muscle, most commonly occurring in middle-aged spayed female dogs. A study performed by Claeys, S. et al. performed a retrospective study to determine the efficacy of a single dose of PPA in [...]

    Veterinary Amitriptyline

    Amitriptyline is one of the most widely used tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) in companion animal behavioral medicine, exerting antihistaminic, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antidepressant effects. It increases synaptic activity of serotonin and norepinephrine, has significant central and peripheral anticholinergic activity, and stimulates β-adrenergic receptors in smooth muscle (e.g. the bladder), causing a decrease in smooth muscle excitability [...]

    Xylitol-Free Gabapentin for Pain Management

    Although only approved for human use, Gabapentin is widely used in veterinary medicine for both neuroleptic and analgesic indications, and has become a valuable adjunct in veterinary therapies. Gabapentin was available as a scored 100mg tablet allowing for some small animal dosing, however this dosage form has been discontinued leaving only 100mg capsules and Neurontin® [...]

    Prednisone vs. Prednisolone in Felines

    Historically, prednisone and prednisolone have been considered therapeutically equivalent when used in veterinary medicine, however studies prove otherwise. Although found equivalent in humans and canines, feline and equine dosing is considerably different. In a study by Rosser and Graham-Mize, feline were administered a 10mg total dose of either prednisone or prednisolone to determine comparative pharmacokinetics [...]

    KCS in Canines

    Ocular administration of cyclopsorin (CsA) is frequently used as treatment for keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS) in canines. Cyclosporin is an immunosuppressive drug that reverses immune-mediated destruction of the lacrimal glands. A study performed by Izci et al. determined that topical administration of a 2% solution of CsA was effective for the treatment of dogs with KCS. [...]

    Mitotane Veterinary Use

    Mitotane is primarily used for the treatment of pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism (PDH) and in the palliative care of adrenal carcinoma, primarily in canines. It works by causing severe, progressive necrosis of the zona fasciculata and zona reticularis within days of starting therapy.1 Typically, hyperadrenocorticism is most commonly seen in middle-age to older dogs (7-12 years old) [...]

    Effects of Fluoxetine on Urine Spraying Behavior in Cats

    Spraying is a common feline behavioral problem, most often in males, and it is one of the most frequent reasons why cats end up in pet shelters. To prevent this annoying behavior from happening, many owners should consider treatment. A study performed in 2001, at the University of California-Davis, showed the effectiveness of fluoxetine, a [...]